29 May, 2022

BIBLICAL MOSES' EXODUS OF ISRAEL




That Moses wrote his journal or stories during the time of Rameses is evident in his usage of the toponym "Rameses" in the the writings that became the sources of information of "Genesis," "Exodus," & "Numbers."

The original sources of "Genesis," "Exodus," & "Numbers" were written during the time of Rameses.

Moses reported that...

"Joseph placed his father and his brothers, and gave them a possession in the land of Egypt, in the best of the land, in the 

land of Rameses,

 as Pharaoh had commanded." -Genesis 47:11

Goshen, during Moses' days, was located in the "land of Rameses." Or most likely Hebrews had tents in a particular area in Avaris, which was during Moses' time belonged to a region called "Rameses." 

King Seti I (1290-1279 BCE) started redeveloping Avaris, as his ancestor (king Set) was deified there when Hyksos lived in the city. The successor, Rameses II, continued the building projects, and had usurped and renamed them. Seti's palace was turned into a city with plenty of foods, military factories, arms, and resources. The pharaoh renamed it "Pi-Rameses Aa-nakhtu," which is the biblical "Raamses." Moses was confirmed about "treasure-city" or "store-city Raamses" by an Egyptian scribe, who described it.

"" I arrived at the Pi-Rameses [House of Ramesses], beloved of Amun and I found it extremely prosperous... life in the Residence is pleasant. Its fields abound with all good produce. Its canals are filled with fish and its marshlands with birds. Its plains are abundant with green pastures.. from the cultivated fields come fruit with the taste of honey, its granaries are filled with barley and wheat." -Pabasa the scribe







RAMESES OF THE BIBLE

In Papyrus Anastasi III 2:11-3:3, written in circa 1210 BCE, we can learn that the toponym "Rameses" was derived from the name of king Rameses the Great. The toponym "Rameses" was in use from  13th to 10th century BCE, and after that Egyptians renamed it back to " ḥw.t wꜥr.t " (hut-waret), which the Greek writers transliterated into Αὔαρις (Auaris), which is now spelled Avaris. Since then, the exact location of the capital city Rameses was unknown until it was dug again up in the 1970's.
During the time of the Judges the region in which it was also belonged was called Zoan. Tanis (biblical Hanes) & Raamses were included in Zoan (Numbers 13:22, Psalms 78:12,43,. Isaiah 30:4).

The granary of Avaris (Tell el-Dab'a) 2 kilometres to the south became incorporated with the capital city, Pi-Rameses (Qantir).

"Therefore they did set over them forced-labor masters to afflict them with their burdens. And they built for Pharaoh store-cities Pithom and Raamses." -Exodus 1:11


PITHOM OF RAMESES

The Polish-Slovak Archaeological Mission headed by Sławomir Rzepka and Jozef Hudec in cooperation with Institute of Archaeology, Polish Centre of Mediterranean Archaeology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, and Aigyptos Foundation confirmed Moses' report that the pharaoh who built "Raamses" had built also a store-city Pithom (Hebrized for "Per-Atum," "Per-Etham" or Pi-Tum - precinct city of god Atum).
Archaeologists found in Tel el-Retaba Rameses II's "Pithom" or temple of Atum, defense walls, garrison barracks, workshops, and granaries. This city was located in the middle of Wadi Tumilat, the stretch of a valley called Tjeku by the Egyptians.  
Later a pharaoh of Saite dynasty transferred the materials of Pithom from Tel el-Retaba to the eastern part of Wadi Tumilat probably as the water of the lake or river in the western region had dried up.
On 12 km (7.5 mi) to the east, in Maskutah, where materials of this city were transferred, was found by Prof. Edouard Naville in 1883 the inscription of Rameses II saying: "I built Pithom at the mouth of the East."

King Rameses II (1279-1213 BCE) has categorically stated that he built Pithom (at Wadi Tumilat).

In 1206 BCE an officer of a pharaoh said that the 'Pithom' and the pools/lake of Merneptah were both located in Tjeku (Succoth).

 Both history, archaeology, and Moses are accurately confirming the fact that the pharaoh of Rameses built Pithom in Wadi Tumilat.

Moses is accurate in describing Pithom as a store-city. He is also accurate in saying that its builders were Hebrews as the inhabitants of that city were descendants of Hyksos ('Foreign Kings'). This Pithom of king Rameses II was in Tell el-Retabeh in the midpart of Wadi Tumilat. The root of "Tumilat" could be "-Tum" (short form of "Atum") to mean land of Atum later understood as goddess Atum. This Pithom city was the first fortress in Tell el-Retabeh which was built by king Rameses II. 
Instead of the usual stones, its walls, 6 meters (18 ft) thick, were made of mud-bricks with straw. 

BRICKS OF STRAW TO BUILD PITHOM CITY

 Again Moses was right on his report about making bricks of straw to build the city for the pharaoh of Rameses.
The pharaoh ordered his masters to let workers search straw for their bricks after Moses asked him 3-day rest for the Hebrews.

"And Pharaoh commanded the same day the taskmasters of the people, and their officers, saying, Ye shall no more give the people straw to make brick, as heretofore: let them go and gather straw for themselves." - Exodus 5:6-7

Inscription written in that era verified that brickmakers were tasked a daily quota when an Egyptian officer wrote in Papyrus Anastasi III:

"Likewise, people are making bricks... they are making their quota of bricks daily.

Moses (1309-1189 BCE) was accurate in reporting that in his era there was a shortage of straw for making bricks. 


An Egyptian overseer wrote in Papyrus Anastasi IV a complaint: 

" I am residing at Qenquen-en-ta, without provisions, and neither men to make bricks nor straw are in the region."

Archaeological findings in Pithom in Tel el-Retabeh could also show us that some of the bricks are lacking of enough straw, confirming the report of Moses.

WORKERS OF PITHOM

Evidence shows few child burials in it, which indicate that the workers were relatives of Hyksos. It's not a surprising thing since Hyksos became developers of Avaris during the days of Abraham (1738-1563 BCE), and between 17th & 16th century BCE, Hyksos built their houses and cemetery in Tel el-Retabeh. 
 It was king Ahmose I (1550 BCE) who defeated Hyksos, and forced the Hyksos of Tel el-Retabeh to soon evacuate, thereby letting Egyptians to dwell in Tel el-Retabeh. 
But the Egyptians abandoned it around 1449 BCE, coincided with the arrival of the family of Jacob in Egypt.
 
During the time of Rameses II the relatives of these Hyksos lived again in Tel el-Retabeh until they abandoned it (1229 BCE). It was Rameses II who first made a fortress in Tel el-Retabeh. In Egyptian hieroglyphics, Tjeku (Succoth) is described as a foreign land, as Hebrews, particularly those related to the Hyksos, were living in it in the 14th century BCE.


King Rameses II was proud to officially record that he had subdued people of Yahweh in Makhtesh Ramon (known anciently Kushu or Kushan in Midian land in Negev, south Judah) by inscribing his own name together with the "Shasu of the Land of Yahweh" to a pillar erected at Amarah West temple.

Simultaneous building projects of Rameses II (1279-1213) required a lot of workers, including foriegners, from north to south, west to east.

Amenmone was reminded to

"Give food rations to the soldiers and the Apiru-laborers who are drawing water from the well of Pre of Rameses II, L.p.h., south of Ai-gy-ptos" (Leiden Papyrus 349),
and  

"Give food rations to the people of the army and to the 'Apiru who are dragging stones for the great pylon [temple gate of Rameses the Great]" (Leiden Papyrus 348).

According to the report of Terru (Terah) to king Zimrilim, Habiru (Hapiru/ Apiru) were citizens living in the country of Terru, and sooner in around 1664 BCE Abram, the son of Terah, was called Hebrew. Hence the line of Abram down to Moses was called Hebrew. Moses reported that these Hebrews were mixed multitude (Exodus 12:37-38, Numbers 11:21). 
The Leiden Papyrus 348 & 349 confirm that there were Apiru (Hapiru, Habiru, Hebrews) who were under forced labor during the time when king Rameses II was building temples in Ai-gyp-tos and likely in Pi-Rameses and Pithom.


At 20s Moses visited his brothers. Two years or so, Seti I, "the king of Egypt died" in 1279 BCE.


"And it came to pass in those days, when Moses 

וַיִּגְדַּ֤ל
[wa-yighdal/
was grown], 

that he went out unto his brothers, and looked on their burdens ...
And it came to pass in process of time, that the

 king of Egypt died

and the descendants of Israel sighed by reason of the bondage, and they cried, and their cry came up unto God by reason of the bondage." -Exodus 2:11,23

Yighdal, or its root "gadal," is a period from teenager to 20's, the age that a man could marry a woman for procreation reason as it is understood in Genesis 38:11,14 & Ruth 1:13.
At 20's Moses heard the cry of his countrymen.

Why they cried?

Because the pharaoh ignited a series of much hardwork building projects started in 1275 BCE when he built a store-city, which later named "Pi-Rameses," to manufacture 1000 weapons, 250 chariots, and 700 shields in a week. 
The granary of Avaris (Tel el-Dab'a), 2 km (1.25 miles) east, became its extension.

It could be during this period of building projects that king Rameses II commended Moses, a soldier that was highly praised for his service. This Moses could be the same person Mohy, who was behind the military successes of king Seti I. 

The first Christian deacon martyr, Stephen, estimated that at the age of 40 Moses committed a murder to defend his countryman (Acts 7:22-24). This could be in circa 1269 BCE. 

A scribe in the Egyptian 19th dynasty has reported:

"Behold, a man is slain beside his brother, who runs away and abandons him to save his own skin." - Admonitions of Ipuwer, 19



Scribe Ipuwer of the Egyptian 19th dynasty (1290-1189 BCE), who wrote Admonitions of Ipuwer from around 1230-1170 BCE, is describing that during the latter part of the reign of a strong man (pharaoh), a man (Moses) who poured water on the ground made that pharaoh in ruin. The same complain (ruining) is written by king Rameses III (1186-1155) about Yar-su (Moses). Corroborating Ipuwer & Rameses III was the Egyptian priest Manetho who directly identified Moses as the man who led Shepherds between 1209 & 1198 BCE.

 "Northern Egypt weeps; the king's storehouse is the common property of everyone, and the entire palace is without its revenues. To it belong emmer and barley, fowl and fish; to it belong white cloth and fine linen, copper and oil; to it belong carpet and mat, [. . .] flowers and wheat-sheaf and all good revenues . . ." - Ipuwer, 10

And the complain of Ipuwer about what the pharaoh had done during the latter regnal years:

"all herds. It means that ignorance of it is what is pleasing to the heart. You have done what was good in their hearts and you have nourished the people with it. They cover their faces through fear of the morrow.
That is how a man grows old before he dies, while his son is a lad of understanding; he does 

not open [his] mouth to speak

to you, ..." - Ipuwer, 16

King Rameses III (1186-1155) reported, too, that king Rameses II (1230 BCE) kept quiet about the plundering that Yar-su (Moses) was doing:


"The land belonging to Egypt was abandoned abroad, and disloyalty was in every man because they had 

no chief mouth

 for many years at the start [Rameses II] until the time of others [Merneptah & Seti II] ... one [Amenmeses] was killed, his successor [Siptah] was a dignitary of wretches. Another [Queen Tausert] after him was in empty years, when 

Su [Moses],
a Kharu [of Seir]

with them acted as outsider chief, making the entire land serving him alone, and joined his dependents in 

plundering

their properties, and treated gods just like humans, that man was not presenting offerings inside the temple." - Papyrus Harris I, 75.3-6


A document known "The Stele of Mose" erected by king Rameses II confirmed what the pharaoh had done to please Moses & the army.


On the stele, king Rameses the Great is depicted coming from a temple & then posing on front of his own statue at Pi-Rameses (Qantir) in the presence of the whole army and telling them:

"Look, the soldier Moses has done what [as I ] his Majesty wishes... How excellent is what he has done for [me], very,very much." -Stele of Mose
The army shouted: "You [pharaoh] are like Re. ..We live from your sight."

They celebrate Moses, and in military garb were throwing pointed aprons & receiving gifts from Rameses II.

This stele erected by king Rameses II for Moses is a confirmation of Moses' report.

"Speak now in the ears of the people, and let every man borrow of his neighbor, and every woman of her neighbor, jewels of silver, and jewels of gold. 
And YHWH gave the people favor in the sight of the Egyptians. Moreover the

 man Moses was very great

 in the land of Egypt, in the sight of Pharaoh's servants, and in the sight of the people." -Exodus 11:2-3

Because of good reasoning, the pharaoh gave silver & all good things of the king's house to this senior officer, Moses.


"The King himself gives silver & all good things of the king's house," because the king is "pleased with the speech of his mouth". 
To the soldiers Rameses II says: "I wish you may see and do what His Majesty loves. How good is what he has done! Great, great!"

Why king Rameses II needed to give silver & all good things of the king's house to Moses & the soldiers who were celebrating Moses?

Because YHWH instructed Moses to ask valuable things from the Egyptians.

"And I will give this people favour in the sight of the Egyptians: and it shall come to pass, that, when ye go, ye shall not go empty" -Exodus 3:21

The pharaoh without knowledge of the exact dreadful day of the death of the firstborn sons in Rameses, was not ready just in case generals would leave Egypt.
 
The exodus was planned to be at midnight when there was a full moon.

THE FINAL PLAGUE 

Scribe Ipuwer (fl. 1230- c.1170 BCE) wrote a lot of plagues of the Late Bronze Age Collapse.

"Forsooth, gates, columns & walls are consumed by fire. 
Lower Egypt weeps. The entire palace is without its revenues. To it belong [by night] wheat & barley, geese & fish. Forsooth, grain has perished on every side.
Forsooth, that has perished which was yesterday seen. The land is left over to its weariness like the cutting of flax." - Ipuwer 2:10, 10:3-6, 6:3, 5:12

The pharaoh of Rameses, together with Egyptian people, were under shock, when their firstborn sons died.

"Forsooth, the children of princess are cast out in the streets. The prison is ruined. He who places his brother in the ground is everywhere. It is groaning throughout the land, mingled with lamentations" - Ipuwer 6:12,3, 2:13, 3:14


"And Moses wrote their journeys by the commandment of YHWH... And they departed from Rameses on the 15th day of the 1st month; on the day after the Passover the descendants of Israel went out with an high hand in the sight of all the Egyptians. 
For the Egyptians buried all their

 firstborn, 

which YHWH had smitten among them: upon their 

gods

also YHWH executed judgments. 
And the descendants of Israel removed from Rameses, and encamped at Succoth
And they left Succoth, and encamped at Etham in the edge of the wilderness. 
And they removed from Etham, and turned again unto Pihahiroth, which is before Baalzephon: and they pitched before Migdol. 
And they departed from before Pihahiroth, and passed through the midst of 

yam
[the sea]

into the wilderness, and went 3 days' journey in the wilderness of Etham ..." -Numbers 33:2-8

When this exodus took place?

Succoth, Baalzephon, Rameses, Pihahiroth, and Pithom [Per-Etham] are all toponyms from the 13th century BCE. 

Baalzephon is mentioned in Papyrus Sallier IV, 1:16 written in circa 1225 BCE, whereas 

Pihahirot, 
Rameses, 
Baal-[zephon], and 
yam tufy 

mentioned in Papyrus Anastasi III, 2:8-3:3 that was written in circa 1210 BCE. Both of these papyri are in the British Museum. Egyptian hieroglyphics describes 

Tjeku (Succoth)

 as a foreign land in Egypt (Wadi Tumilat). Papyrus Anastasi V, 19.2-20.6 reported that there was an enclosure-wall of Succoth and there was a Migdol of Seti I (1290-1279 BCE) in the western direction from the palace (which was in what later called Raamses). In 1206 BCE Inena reported in Papyrus Anastasi VI, 4.56 that there was 

Precinct-Etham (Pithom)

 in Succoth.
All of these extant documents prove that the report of Moses is pertaining to the 13th century BCE.
Rameses was a region, where Raamses city, Pithom, and yam suph (Reeds' Sea) belonged, derived its name from king Rameses II.

King Rameses II during his first heb sed festival in circa 1250 BCE was ritually transformed into an Egyptian god  when the firstborn son was Prince Ramesses B. Because of this, Prince Rameses junior had to sit on the throne to act as pharaoh, as his father (the real pharaoh) was functioning as an Egyptian god. 

"And all the firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the Pharaoh's firstborn 
hayoseb [sitting]
al-kis'ow [upon his throne],
even unto the firstborn of the maidservant
asher [who is]
akhar [behind]
ha-rekhayim [the handmill]; and all the firstborn of beasts." -Exodus 11:5

It is clear in the report of Moses that the firstborn son (crown prince) was sitting on the throne of the pharaoh.
All the firstborn sons of Rameses the Great died before the pharaoh died, and he built the largest tomb in Egypt now known KV5 to accommodate all his children. One of them was Prince Ramesses B who had happened the firstborn son in 1229 BCE.

According to Moses the death of the firstborn son was a judgement of YHWH against the Egyptian gods, particularly to the king of Rameses.
 It was the regnal Year 50 of king Rameses the Great when prince Rameses junior died in 1229 BCE - when Moses was 80 years old. 
Hence Moses lived from 1309 to 1189 BCE.

"And Moses was 80 years old, and Aaron 83 years old, when they spoke unto Pharaoh." -Exodus 7:7

"And Moses was 120 years old when he died: his eye was not dim, nor his natural force abated." -Deuteronomy 34:7

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